Racism is a global problem today. Any problem requires a specific solution. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of racism and the forms of its manifestation at the present stage, and search possible ways to avoid it (Reilly, Kaufman & Bodino, 2003). According to the racist theories, people of different races differ in socio-biological behavior. The differences, as the followers of these hypotheses indicate, are present due to the mechanisms of heredity and do not disappear completely as a result of education, socialization and other cultural processes (Memmi, 2000).
Definition of Racism
Racism is the worldview, as well as political theories and practices, based on the racial discrimination, division of people into biologically different groups in terms of appearance of the visible characteristics, such as texture and color of hair, facial features, body type, etc. In addition, this division is made per the race and different attitudes to individuals and their communities, depending on membership in these groups (races).
There are few somewhat different definitions of racism. For example, the Encyclopedia Britannica (2007) states that racism is the belief that racial characteristics have a decisive influence on the ability, intelligence, morality, behavior and traits of the individual human person, not of the society or social group. This doctrine must include the idea of the original division of people into superior and inferior races, where the former are the creators of civilization and are designed to dominate over the latter. The implementation of the racist theories in practice sometimes finds expression in the policy of racial discrimination.
The Nature of Racism
Racial discrimination is still an acute problem in the United States, and now all citizens have to take care of themselves, both white and black. Any action, even the most innocent, has to be made with caution if it is impossible to interpret it as a crime motivated by racial hatred. The researcher of the Center for the Study of the South at the University of North Carolina, William Ferris, noted that racism is like cancer, it can not be completely cured, and only the remission can be achieved. It turns out that in order to remedy the situation, the country will take many years, decades, even centuries (Wohlgemuth, 2007).
The racial problem is a direct consequence of capitalist contradictions. Some researchers say that racism is rooted in capitalism. Wherever there is inequality, people will be divided on the basis on the surface characteristics: race, religion, gender, etc. The human mind, and moreover, society itself is the cause of racism but not the skin color (Miles, 1989). Therefore, the healing of the feeling of fear or dislike to the representatives of the other races and intolerant behavior toward them is to be found above all among the society. Hence, it has to get rid of false assumptions, which for a too long period have been a source of misconceptions about the superiority or, conversely, a lower position of the various groups of mankind (Wohlgemuth, 2007).
Racism, which manifests itself in many forms, is actually a complex phenomenon involving many interwoven factors: economic, political, historical, cultural, social and psychological ones. Only by taking into consideration all these factors, we can effectively combat racism.
The Attempts to Prevent Racism
The incidents of racial and ethnic discrimination occur daily, preventing the normal development of millions of people around the world. Racism and intolerance are destroying lives and communities, depriving individuals of the right to the fundamental principles of equality and non-discrimination, and promoting incitement of ethnic hatred. Fighting racism is a priority for the international community and is among the main activities of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (Reilly, Kaufman & Bodino, 2003).
The UN tries to solve this problem since its founding, and the prohibition of racial discrimination is enshrined in all major instruments in the field of human rights. This prohibition imposes a number of obligations on states and confronts them with the task of eliminating discrimination in the public and private spheres. The principle of equality also requires countries to take special measures to address the conditions that are causing or perpetuating racial discrimination. Unfortunately, the UN is too big, too slow, and too bureaucratized organization to seriously affect the situation.
In short, the adoption of the law on universal equality does not mean settling the love to neighbors in the hearts of people, especially if these neighbors are of different skin color. In the mind of every member of a particular race may still sit the psychology of a slave or slave-owner.
The Social Resistance to Racism
The social resistance to racism has been around a long time, embodied in the movement against the slavery, protection of the ethnic minorities from exclusion and deportation, and movement opposed to anti-Semitism. The concept of anti-racism appeared after the liberation of Europe from fascism, namely the essay by Jean-Paul Sartre “Black Orpheus” (1948), dedicated to the famous African poet, philosopher and first President Leopold Sedar Senghor (Bonnett, 2000). Anti-racism is a movement to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism, apartheid and ethnic discrimination. Activists call for the freedom and equality of all people regardless of their race.
The term anti-racism refers to beliefs, actions and social movements, as well as the state administration, which are aimed at combating racism and phenomena following it. Anti-racism is directed at achieving freedom and equality of all people regardless of race and nationality. It provides the idea that racism has a negative impact on society and can be overcome by some changes in the economic, political, and social life (Bonnett, 2000).
To conclude, it must be said I think that in order to provide the successful fight with racism, it is necessary to strengthen the criminal law provisions to combat racial discrimination, racism and extremism. Additionally, persons promoting the racial hatred should be prosecuted. The substantial efforts to tighten the response to the escalation of racial violence are to be provided. Criminal law ought to consider racial hatred or hostility as an aggravating circumstance; the police are to focus their attention on the most aggressive ultranationalist groups. In my opinion, the prosecution of hate crimes both quantitatively and qualitatively also needs to be increased.