The part of the leadership skills of every manager is to find the proper ways to motivate employees with not only the help of cash or other materialistic incentives. Thus, every individual has its own personality, and a manger must find a proper approach to him or her. Thereafter, the objective of the following paper is to discuss motivational theories from the perspective of the recently conducted research that involved interviewing certain individuals at their working places.
The first kind of motivation is definitely based on incentive theory as we are all human beings and earn money for living. Monetary reward of being paid is the first type of motivation that came to people's mind. This type of theory has much to deal with such behavioral learning concepts as reinforcement and association.
Thus, it has become clear that not everyone gets motivation from the same things and motivation usually bases on needs that might change depending on a life experiences. Among the interviewed individuals, those who occupied positions of top managers are more motivated to work because of need of professional growth and development, which is different from basic incentive theory. The researchers speak about need for accomplishment of more difficult tasks in life (need for achievement), need for close personal relationships (need for affiliation), and need to control others (need of power). Moreover, the motivational system might be extrinsic and intrinsic. The first is about feedback, payment, promotion and motivation. The second one is related to responsibilities, achievements, and competencies. This means that any of the mentioned things can powerfully motivate every individual. Those individuals who are motivated intrinsically usually take over new jobs or accomplish complicated tasks due to internal need of achievement and development, while there are certain claims that very strong extrinsic motivators may erase the previous ones. Researchers also refer to other theories of motivation, but one important conclusion is that much depends on the personality type, which is why every employee needs to have separate approach. This means that workers in productions would benefit from other types of motivation than top managers (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014).
How can we increase the motivation of employees? First of all, it is important to build a strong ground that would show that employees are invested from the side of the company. They need to know and eventually feel that they make a difference in the company and that they affect the businesses' growth. The next step is to work on creation of a friendly environment as this helps all employees to feel themselves important and valued. Development of a career plan based on particular needs of every employee is another step towards the increased level of motivation. During this process, the company should take professional skills, knowledge and aspirations into consideration. Thus, sometimes people lack not practical but theoretical knowledge, which is why the company must conduct regular trainings that are about not only the internal processes, but are also educational and can help employees to grow professionally. Fun and other leisure activities should be included in yearly agenda in order to show people that company cares about not only employees' performance, but also mental and physical health. Unexpected day off rewarding is a perfect example. Every employee deserves recognition of his or her contribution to achievement of business goals, and this simultaneously helps to increase the motivation. No one can doubt that small monetary incentives can also do miracles, but this is important that management team must commit to what they have promised in case of achieving the set targets. Moreover, career coaching and clear management that would help to allocate the resource properly are another motivational spurs.
- Please, could you tell me your job position?
- For how long have you been working for X company?
- What are your main responsibilities at work? Do you find them useful or you think that you do many unnecessary tasks?
- What is the most important thing about work?
- What do you like about your work?
- What is motivation for you?
- Do you differentiate material and moral motivation?
- What motivates you the most?
- What can the management of the company do to increase a level of motivation from your side?
- If you were to go to another job what would be the biggest motivation for that?
- If you were offered to get much more money for the job without any professional growth or development, would do take it?
- What do you think is the best motivation for the team?
- Can you please tell what in your opinion might be demotivating?
- What are most motivation things that management of the company has done (in your opinion)?
In order to make a proper research I have asked individuals from different social statuses to participate in my research. Thus, they all work for international companies and have agreed to participate in the interview only if their names and other detailed information that is to identify them or working places would not be revealed.
People who work in production care the most about the size of wages and other cash incentives. The interviewed have mentioned that their motivation has drastically increased when management of the company has offered them a cash bonus for achieving production volumes certain months in a row. Moreover, the yearly salary review was also another factor that made them still working at the mentioned place.
Middle management workers have stated that they cared more about an ability to get professional growth, training, and development. Money was less important as they understood that they could improve themselves and move to further positions. Thus, equal treatment from the side of management and regular coaching sessions, as well as a possibility to give and receive feedback, were commonly mentioned motivational factors. Moreover, career path planning served as a strong motivation tool to continue working for the same company.
The case is much more complicated with top management. The first motivation that they spoke about was an ability to get more tasks that are challenging and see the results of that. Thereafter, if they have launched a project on opening a new division of the factory, they would definitely do it to bring profit and after that, they look into even more complicated tasks. They might get demotivated if they are to do the same routine job, and happy to change their working place for more challenging objectives.
Letter of Gratitude
On behalf of the learning institution, I would like to thank you for your time that you have dedicated to answer the questions in the interview. I would like to mention that this research was extremely important for me in terms of professional development and for my co-students as data can further be used to define the types of motivation that serves as a powerful source. I want to assure you that all the information that you have provided about yourself and company you work at is purely confidential and will not be distributed. Thus, it will be used for research about motivation.