Today, there are nearly 200 countries on the world's stage. Each of them is unique and has its own history, character, and peculiarities. A number of classification systems and theories have been designed to determine the stage of development, which a state has. According to Rostow's theory, countries that are on the fifth and final stage of development are characterized by the access to the master plan for the service sector and the production of the consumer goods (Rostow, 1969). New Zealand is a country that has a high level of development of economy and society. Acquaintance with natural, demographic, economic and social conditions in New Zealand can help to understand the reasons for its success and a place among the most developed and stable countries.
Natural-historical background of the development of New Zealand
The country is located on two islands (south and north) in the southwest of the Pacific Ocean, in Polynesia. Moderate climate covers most of the country, and only its northern territory is in the subtropical climate zone. Marine environment explains the presence of cooler temperatures and milder climate than in similar latitudes of the continents. Mountains and hilly terrain with its immensity prevail over the plain, which occupies only 10% of the territory. In the east of the island, the biggest flatland in New Zealand (320 kilometers long and 64 kilometers extension) is situated. It is called Canterbury.
It is a very green country, 29% of which is covered by the forests. Artificial plantations, which benefit the economy, are the Dakrydium Cypress, the Podocarpus Totara, Paniculata, Dacrycarpus Dacrydioides and Nothofagus. After the settlement of this area, Europeans planted it with high-turf grasses, which now can be seen only in the mountains. Now the population of sows tares the plain, fescue, and clover. The fauna of New Zealand is different from other related areas in some species of the birds and a lack of the placental mammals. The flightless kiwi, New Zealand's mullet are rare birds that can be found on the land.
New Zealand's indigenous population is Maori tribal people. In 1840, the settlement became a British colony in exchange for certain tribal autonomy and rights of British citizens. The process of assimilation has resulted in the fact that today only about 15% of the population is the natives. When the British began to populate the country, they divided it into provinces, but to make it easier to manage the centralized financial system, in 1876 the decision was reversed. Until today, New Zealand does not have the administrative division of the country. Since 1989, the principle of the local management with the use of the regional councils and territorial administrations is the basis of the system of the territories under their jurisdiction (Smith, 2014).
Demographic and Economic Survey of New Zealand
New Zealand has a population of 4,578,898 people. Speaking about the country's demographic situation, it should be noted that the number of population has grown in last years. From 2013 to today, the population growth is 0.88% per year. Migration has a special significance for the country, as it was the driving force for its growth and development. A situation in which the number of the emigrants is higher than the number of immigrants remains until today. The structure of the population is the following: New Zealand Europeans - about 70%, Mauri - about 15%, Asians - about 7%, other nationalities - 18%. The traditional and cultural influence continues to play an important role for indigenous tribal and British residents. The standard of living in New Zealand for a long period puts it on the first place in the ranking. The level of public health services of public and private hospitals is high; it has established a functional infrastructure and high availability. Favorable climatic, economic, social, political and environmental conditions contribute to this factor.
New Zealand economy has a market system and export orientation. It is based mainly on agriculture, tourism, food processing, and manufacturing industries. The USA, Australia, Japan and China are its principals trading partners. The GDP of the New Zealand in 2014 was about 238 billion dollars that showed the increase in 3,3 % compared to the previous year (Statistics New Zealand, August 2014). Actively conducting researches and the use of the modern technologies contribute to the sustainability and competitiveness of the agricultural sector, which is the backbone of the economy.
The difficulties that arose in the economy in the 1960s triggered an increase of the state's intervention in the economy, international trade, in particular. State coordinates and controls basic aspects of foreign trade activity stimulating the export activity and promotes the training of qualified personnel. Making predictions for the economy of New Zealand, we can be sure that the significant changes in the structure of the economy will not happen. Though, not always rapid but steady GDP growth will continue. Threats within the microenvironment may have a negative impact on economic performance but their effects can be minimized by the ongoing monitoring and coordination of the economic mechanism.
How It Works
Despite the high level of the New Zealand's development, the country has a number of the internal social problems. One of the most urgent and serious problems in New Zealand is the domestic violence. Janet Fanselow' studies indicate that according to statistics, from 33 to 39% of women in New Zealand are suffering from the violence with physical or sexual nature (Fanslow & Robinson, 2014). If to analyze the state of crime in the country, it becomes obvious that law breakers in most cases are Maori (over 40%). It can be explained by the fact that the legal system in the country is more supportive and loyal to the indigenous population. Also, it can be explained by the remainder of the guilt of Europeans for colonization and elimination of the indigenous population in the past. In 1902, R. Seddon's government managed to overcome permanently the separatist Maori's movement by using competent policy.
The foreign economic activity in New Zealand has a special significance. Products with the export destination are about 20% of the total. The country has a large regional impact, as it is the main exporter of the agricultural products and the major supplier of the food products in the nearest countries. Participating in the activities of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation gives New Zealand the opportunity to influence the situation in the region. In the global context of international importance, the country is one of the most influential. Its membership in the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Energy Agency, OECD contributes to this. The policy of New Zealand, which does not use the preferences and subsidies in the agricultural sector, contributes to its output to the world market as a major exporter of the agricultural products. The country has a special responsibility and complexity in the protection of the environment and ecology. Among the main economic partners of New Zealand are Australia, Japan, USA, Germany, and France.
The fifth stage of the mass consumption's predominant and dominance of the service sector shows that the technology, the industry, and the economy of a country are already well developed (Rostow, 1969). The fifth stage will not last forever due to the natural need for further development and the necessity to solve the problems arisen in the previous stages. It can be assumed that the next stage of development will focus on non-stop progressive development and evolution of all spheres. At the same time, the trend towards increased attention to the ecology and the environment, and the search for alternative energy sources will arise. It will be one of the most urgent problems of the sixth stage of development. Especially it can touch New Zealand, as its economy and development depend on the state of natural resources and environmental conditions. The time will come when humanity will lead not only the consumer way of life but also will support and restore the state of the planet. The main objective of the humanity's future prospects should be to achieve a high level of development of the whole society, each country, perhaps, drawing on the experience of already successful countries in Europe and North America. In this case, the global internationalization and globalization may lead to the assimilation of nations, thereby threatening within the loss of the most of their national and cultural peculiarity.
New Zealand is a country of the South West Pacific Coast. Rich natural resource base, competent government policies and strong external economic relations have led to achieving a high level of development of the country. The high rate of the GDP contributed to raising the standard of living of citizens, which, in turn, attracts more and more immigrants every year. The internal environment of the country is characterized by the relatively calm mood in society, except for violations of the laws mostly by the indigenous Maori's people. The predominance of the role of agricultural (including the food industry) and tourism sectors in the economy also indicates on its belonging to the developed countries, according to the theory of Rostow. In addition, it makes the government be more attentive to the state of the environment and its ecological problems.
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