Lodging and food and beverage industries offer immense career possibilities. Simultaneously, these spheres are known to be greatly competitive facing numerous challenges. Therefore, exploring management opportunities of these fields, one should consider the current trends in the development of the hospitality and tourism services. Besides, it is necessary to detect potential issues and management practices that help to eliminate their negative impact.
Detecting the important trends that affect current hospitality industry, the following tendencies should be considered. Firstly, it is expected that the "millennials" will become the most frequent and loyal customers of the lodging, food and beverage industry. Specifically, this group includes "Internet bloggers, culture buffs, LGBT and multi-generational travelers all looking for a unique, novel experience who will command change within the market." (Rauch, 2013) Further, the future restaurant and tourism services are presumed to be based on "speed and precision." (Rauch, 2013) In particular, the growing speed of life requires the prompt restaurant, hotel and traffic services. The next significant trend is the development of impressive quality of services. It is connected with the great competition in the hospitality industry that engages the involved businesses to maintain a decent client base and attract new customers. The fourth peculiarity is a constant improvement of leadership, which presumes that managers are supposed to advance their communicative skills in order to ensure the perfect services.
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Moreover, it is noticed that modern phenomenon of economic and cultural globalization enhances the number of international visitors (Rauch, 2013). It means that the hospitality and restaurant industry are supposed to be developed in line with the demand to fulfill the needs of international clients. Another contemporary tendency that is also connected with globalization is the indivisibility of mobile and social network. Considering the case, "mobile activity has allowed social media to live in real time by allowing users to create updates, tag friends and check in on their mobile devices." (Rauch, 2013) As the result, one can rightfully deduce that the improvement of the discussed industries presumes the necessity to include and implement to the fullest the means of mobile and social media. Furthermore, the related trend is predetermined by the current topicality of content marketing that it expected to replace traditional ways of advertising. Besides, the importance of mobile and social networks suggests an increased interest towards the property websites since this approach may significantly facilitate and increase the speed of hospitality and restaurant services. What is more, nowadays, there is a tendency to review and upgrade site tactics. Thanks to this approach many people tend to use online services. For instance, the statistics claims "TripAdvisor has become the world's most popular travel website with 34 million unique users each month." (Rauch, 2013) In these terms, it becomes common for the users to exchange information and provide feedback. Moreover, it facilitates the company's approach to thank clients for using a particular service. Finally, taking into account a great amount of online reviews and feedbacks, the businesses of these industries are intended to apply to the reputation management. Undoubtedly, it guarantees the competitiveness and profitability to the reputation-oriented firms.
Considering the amount and extent of the current tendencies in the lodging, food and beverage industry, it is important to discuss and summarize the basic procedures involved in managing a restaurant business. In particular, a good manager should be capable of managing the funds properly. Moreover, this position requires an individual to be skillful in effective marketing, which means the creation of the advantageous brand image by using positioning strategies. Further, to succeed with the above-mentioned approach, a manager is supposed to control the quality of products and services. In addition, aiming to maintain the reputation of a high quality, the leader must manage current and anticipate potential issues.
Besides, a good leader must be a good time manager as well as be capable of creating a positive and productive working atmosphere. It presumes that a manager possesses a set of personal and professional characteristics that ensure adequate and fruitful motivation of the staff. Undoubtedly, to excel at this task, a leader should set a positive personal example. Finally, a good chief must express consistency adhering to a well-elaborated system of punishment and rewards, which enhances employees' understanding of their main duties and responsibilities (Top 10 restaurant management tips, 2014).
Apart from the above-mentioned responsibilities, a manager should implement the relevant practices directed on the enhancement of the workflow. Among the most important human resource practices in the lodging and food and beverage industries, one can distinguish recruitment and selection, teamwork, training and development, appraisal, rewarding, and providing job security (Nickson, 2007). The most important goal of these human resourse practices is to select the individuals "with the correct attitudinal and behavioral characteristic" and advance those significant qualities (Nickson, 2007). In these terms, the indicator of manager's success is the harmonious and productive workflow.
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Discussing personal and professional characteristics as well as basic duties of managers, it is critically important to overview the main issues, which these experts are supposed to address. Given that the number of challengers is immense, it is appropriate to divide all problems into 4 main groups: labor and workforce; tax and commerce; food and nutrition; and sustainability (National Restaurant Association, 2015). The major issue connected with human resource management is minimal wages and a poor (or none) benefits package. Speaking of food and nutrition problems, it is necessary to emphasize that food belongs to the highly perishable goods, which often becomes the reason of lost profits or unpleasant (if not incriminating) situations with the stakeholders. Further, the tax and commerce group includes the issues that directly affect company's profits, for instance, these are restaurant depreciation, swipe fees, and food donation tax deduction (National Restaurant Association, 2015). Finally, the problems connected with sustainability suggest the necessity to utilize food waste and other residuals; besides, the companies are supposed to dispose the used natural resources and maintain eco-friendly business performance.
Being capable of solving or, at least, taming the above-stated issues gains significance simultaneously with the growth of the overall employment in longing, and food and beverage industries. For instance, the National Restaurant Association reveals the forecast for the next ten years. Specifically, it is claimed that the restaurant industry employment will grow from 13, 5 million Americans (2014) to 14, 8 million (2024) (National Restaurant Association, 2013). Moreover, food and beverage service is expected to grow in 12 states (Arizona, Texas, Florida, Nevada, Georgia, North Carolina, Alaska, Alabama, Utah, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware) for about 13-15 % till 2024 (National Restaurant Association, 2013) . Considering these statistics, it is natural to conclude that the hospitality and tourism industries will provide a lot of management opportunities in the nearest years.
Meanwhile, currently the National Restaurant Association (2015) suggests the following types of management careers: banquet manager, beverage manager, catering manager, dining room manager, executive chief, food and beverage director, foodservice directory, general manager (full service), general manager (quick service). In addition, the food industry includes the positions of human resource manager, kitchen manager, public relations manager, and president/CEO (National Restaurant Association, 2015). Similarly, the American Hotel and Lodging Association (2008) suggests management categories in a broader spectrum. Considering the case, apart from the above-mentioned positions, there are such as accounting management, airline management, destination/event management, gaming management and many others. That is why; it is appropriate to deduce that the food and beverage industry is closely connected with the lodging and tourism spheres. Moreover, considering the notion of globalization it is possible to project the integration of these industries into one as well as its further advancement, expansion and client-oriented approach.
Discussing various career opportunities in the food service and lodging industries it is appropriate to consider that this industry is "the second largest employer after the government" (Struwe, n. d.). Moreover, unlike government, this industry proposes better chances for being recruited. Within the time, professional growth is expected, but it requires obtaining a relevant education (Struwe, n. d.). Besides, food and beverage industry is known for minimal wages, even though the lodging industry, which is more related to tourism, as a rule, proposes better salaries. Therefore, the choice of profession should depend on a person's goals and career ambitions including such important variables as the expected salary rates and the system of benefits and rewards.
Summing up the above-mentioned, it is necessary to conclude that lodging, food and beverage industries are greatly affected by the technological development. Therefore, the current services are closely connected with the use of mobile and social network. This tendency is expected to continue expanding within the time. Furthermore, the level of overall employment in hospitality and tourism industries is going to increase within the next ten years. In terms of career opportunities, the food and restaurant business as well as lodging possess attractive possibilities for the job-seekers. In particularly, there is a great diversity of positions in both industries. Besides, the entry positions are relatively easily obtained. Therefore, the ever-increasing need for the workforce and the variety of possibilities predetermine the considerable demand of the management positions in the discussed fields.
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