Sociological concepts (Society, Culture, and Health)

The Biomedical Model

The biomedical model is a platform of defining diseases, which dates back to the middle of the nineteenth century. Its core elements include physical processes. The theory takes into account pathology, biochemistry, and physiology of illness. However, it does not consider the influence of social factors on the development of the medical disorder.

In order to understand the model, it is possible to compare it to the biopsychosocial one. The latter regards a diagnosis as a result of communication between a physician and a patient, which initializes further treatment and patient's recovery process. On the other hand, the biomedical model focuses on health issues and physiological aspects of human performance without taking into account any social interactions (Willis & Elmer 2007). In addition, it does not pay attention to any influence of the environment, social sector or psychological sphere. It is a model of treatment widely used in the Western countries. The mentioned states emphasize the importance of providing patients with biomedical model treatment as long as it focuses on physical processes without considering any other indirect impact on the individual. It means that the biomedical model does not take into account the subjective feelings of patients and their psychological perceptions. In addition, it does not focus on the history of illnesses. The main objects of the model include tests and medical examination which bring results to the physician's further considerations.

Many sociologists doubt that this model can be useful enough to diagnose the majority of illnesses. In general, it is possible to state that it is effective enough in the evaluation of the disease. However, it does not guarantee that it will be possible to reduce the probability of the individual facing the same medical disorder. It happens because the model does not take into account other factors rather than biological processes. For example, as long as psychological aspects influence the disease development, depression could become the reason of other mental illnesses. An individual can suffer from the set of harmful psychological issues, which lead to the continuous health problems evolution. Nevertheless, the biomedical model does not take into account any history or psychological aspects. It focuses only on the actual state of the patient. It is the main disadvantage which casts doubt on the whole concept. In general, the biomedical model is effective enough to treat the illness if one knows about its causes.

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The Medical Dominance

Medical dominance is a phenomenon which provides a healthcare system with an engine encouraging all its elements to get arranged in the proper way. The organizational nature of the medical dominance touches upon the autonomy of physicians through the lens of their role in the economic sustainability of health services. In addition, it has an influence through the collective cooperation of medical associations, which have an impact on the delivery of healthcare services.

The main idea of medical dominance is the proper use of authority in order to promote an outstanding customer service. Its supporters claim that physicians have a power of managing subordinates as long as they obtain the necessary set of qualities and knowledge. This, in its turn, enhances the overall development of the healthcare sector. Medical dominance can also become a challenge for the performance of the healthcare institution since its elements may face inequality in the distribution of responsibilities and duties. In addition, it is an issue because it builds the performance according to the peculiarities of the professional's competence.

There are some doubts regarding the differences between dominance and autonomy. Various healthcare specialists claim that autonomy can become a challenging element of the performance bringing benefits to it. For example, subordinates can use their autonomy in order to provide top-management with suggestions and advice. Thus, it can be a valuable source of improvement in terms of emerging business environment. However, dominance remains the main element which encourages the enhancement of knowledge and experience in order to obtain leadership. Medical dominance focuses on the development and evolution of the empowerment. In general, it is an engine which encourages individuals to deepen the knowledge, improve brain penetration, extend the boundaries of competence, and strive to achieve success.

Medical dominance is important in the prospect of sociological concepts. It is a regulative tool organizing further interactions within personnel. It is not equal to leadership as dominance puts a strain on other individuals. However, this phenomenon really exists and other employees need to deal with it. Knowledge and experience have become the main elements which define the nature of the medical dominance. Consequently, those who obtain the diversity of knowledge and facts have high chances to dominate in the selected segment. In general, medical dominance enhances the evolution of healthcare sector along with raising requirements to the healthcare professionals.

The Sociological Imagination

The sociological imagination is a term which dates back to the 1960s. It was coined in order to explain the nature of sociology and its main concepts. Wright Mills introduced the term of sociological imagination with the aim to provide individuals with the reflection of sociological concepts in daily life.

There are numerous definitions of the notion. However, all of them are based on the idea of the connection between the person's experience and society. Sociological imagination enhances the understanding that the development of the society is the result of every individual's performance. Moreover, social welfare is the reflection of the person's attitude towards his/her role in the community and its sustainable development along with the evolution of the main principles and values penetrating into its nature. The main aim of sociological imagination is to bring the realization that such factors as national peculiarities, norms and standards of behaviour, motives and social actions influence the development of the whole community (Germov & Marilyn 2011). In addition, a variety of factors affect the development of every individual that belongs to the global community.

Sociological imagination provides with ability to see different factors from the perspective of the social interaction. It focuses on the outcomes which have impact on the nature of society. In order to see the results, the concept suggests looking at the situation from the alternative point of view and predicting the results of the behaviour. It requires an individual to think away from his normal lifestyle and look at the situation from the different angle. To put the situation into the wider context, it is necessary to move away from the daily routine and personal circumstances.

Sociological imagination is used in numerous studies dedicated to the basics of sociology. It is a primary element explaining individuals regardless of their sex that the world is a net of outcomes brought by the community's behaviour. It is a consequence which allows people to look at the perspective of social development along with its difficulties. In addition, this concept makes it possible to see the connection between personal behavioural patterns and the surrounding community. Interactions and the diversity of perspectives form the basis of the notion. Finally, it is an element of the sociology which explains the idea of relations influencing the development of the community. In general, it is an outlining element providing everyone with an ability to accept different real-life situations along with their impacts on human development. It is an engine of sociology providing it with further considerations of evolution.

The Social Construction

It is a theory existing within the communication platform which explores the development of relationships and social construction. The core element of the notion is that it focuses on the understanding, meaning, and significance of every individual in the system of social interactions.

According to the information analysed about social interactions, it mostly concentrates on the two elements that deal with the human beings' development and their going through the process of evolution. Firstly, there is a fact that individuals grow being the parts of the society. Thus, there exists a set of functions that help to integrate every person into the community. The second element of the theory focuses on language as an element of human reality. It is the basis which enhances social interactions and integration into the process of improving social development.

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The focus of social construction is the evaluation of the way individuals build their routine and participate in social evolution. It is a dynamic process that it takes into account the diversity of knowledge of various participants contributing to the development of interpretations. Moreover, social construction is a theory which considers the ways of promoting norms and principles of individual's behaviour. Standards of human activity regarding social interactions include various values which are acceptable in the community within a stated period of time. Social standards, in the light of social construction, transform according to the generations' developmental peculiarities. What is more, community tends to create diverse values which will meet the needs of every individual and protect his/her rights to live in a healthy environment. Social construction deals with such principles as right and wrong, weak and strong in terms of the person's performance.

Nevertheless, many critics cast doubts on the concept. The main idea of social construction claims that biological processes have no influence on the individual's routine activity. However, many opponents are not sure that this idea is useful enough to reflect the concept under consideration. The main point of criticism is that the diversity of biological and psychological factors contributes to the interactions of every person within the society. As a result, it is possible to state that there exists both biological and psychological influence on the sustainable evolution of norms and principles of human behaviour.

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