Taj Mahal

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Taj Mahal is a pearl of the Indian architecture. It combines the beauty of shapes and forms with a deep sense and significant symbolism. In many aspects, Taj Mahal is an innovative building. It unites some contemporary and new ideas in one form. Taj Mahal has no excessive details or odd elements. Every part of the construction is well organized and combined with others. Therefore, we can say that Taj Mahal is a unique and inimitable building.

  • Taj Mahal is a geometrically equal, symmetrical building. It is made of two equal parts, which form the whole unit. In this part of the paper, we will dwell on the explanation of the importance of such composition for Taj Mahal. Moreover, we will combine the meaning of such a structure with the religious and traditional background.
  • Red and white stones were used during building Taj Mahal. However, these two colors are not the spontaneous ones. They have a significant meaning, which is of great importance for the Indian beliefs. This part of the essay will discover the purpose and sense of these colors. Additionally, it will explain the advantages of such colors for the building of such construction.
  • Taj Mahal includes not only a tomb chamber, but also a lot of other buildings and constructions. One of them is a riverfront garden. Many historians compare it with the divine gardens of God. Here, we will focus our attention on the peculiarities of the garden's design. Additionally, this part will dwell on the importance of such an arrangement for the fulfillment of the main purpose of Taj Mahal.
  • Taj Mahal contains plenty of ornaments, decorations and repeated elements. This part of the paper will describe some features of the external and internal structures of Taj Mahal. They are essential for the understanding of its uniqueness and significance.


Taj Mahal is a pearl of the Indian architecture. It represents a new view on the art of building and represents some new ideas in this sphere. In fact, Taj Mahal is an innovative building in many aspects. It combines the profound symbolism and incredible beauty. There are no excessive details or odd elements in the complex of Taj Mahal. Every part of the construction is in harmony with each other. This is a distinct feature, which makes Taj Mahal unique and inimitable.

Taj Mahal was built in order to honor the name of the third wife of the emperor. Thousands of people were working on this building (Tillitson, 1990). Obviously, the emperor wanted it to be an unusual and unique construction. Many architects have suggested their ideas for this project. However, a building plan of Taj Mahal had several significant advantages, comparing to other similar projects. Nowadays, we can say that this complex provides us with plenty of accomplished elements and harmonized details. Moreover, Taj Mahal has managed to combine a contemporary architectural style with some new ideas and innovative elements. Therefore, there is a need to dwell on the superiorities of Taj Mahal in details in order to understand its distinctive peculiarities and advantages.

Firstly, Taj Mahal perfectly satisfies the demands of the canonical forms in the architecture. It has a strict pattern and a rational geometry (Koch, 2006). The accomplished symmetry is combined with the white marble. This symbolizes purity and innocence. In general, such a combination creates the feeling of solemnity and sonority. Actually, perfection is a distinct feature of nature. It is of great value in Hinduism. Therefore, such a construction as Taj Mahal shows its closeness to the natural forms and shapes. It emphasizes on the importance of nature. It is not accepted only because this is a result of human activities. This aspect is very important for the understanding of Indian beliefs and values. From this point of view, Taj Mahal perfectly meets all the requirements. It emphasizes on the importance of nature and religion combining the early and divine world into one composition.

The central building in Taj Mahal is its mausoleum. Its planning is preserved in the accomplished and geometrically equal cross-axial symmetry (Koch, 2006). As a result, the construction is focused on the main tomb chamber. Speaking about the inner organization, it is also well organized and accomplished. The facades highlight the harmony of main constructions and give a beautiful view from different sides.

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Furthermore, the symmetry of the building is preserved at different levels. In other words, not only the external gate is geometrically right. All the inner and external elements are well organized and symmetrically equal. It is also important to mention that symmetry is connected with the number two. It reflects two similar parts of the whole unit (Koch, 2006). This number has a certain meaning; it can be widely found in the Hinduism religion. Thus, it symbolizes the world harmony and natural balance. Moreover, it is a symbol of ruling and absolute power. It is the other reason that has made the planning of Taj Mahal appropriate.

Thirdly, Taj Mahal represents a hierarchical composition of red and white colors. Both of them are essential in Hinduism. White color, as we have already mentioned, is the color of sanctity and purity. It also symbolizes beauty, knowledge and cleanness. What is more, white color reflects mourning. Women get dressed into white in case their relatives die. Therefore, white color is the best way to honor the memory of the emperor's wife. Speaking about the red color, it is the main color in Hinduism. It denotes the auspicious occasion. It is an essential color of a wedding dress and religious ceremony. Thus, we can conclude that the combination of these two colors is not an accidental one. Both represent a profound meaning and a hidden sense.

Moreover, according to the ancient practices, white stones in the building are assigned to a ruling caste, while the red ones are used for the representatives of a warrior caste. By combining these two colors in one building, Taj Mahal determines the interaction between those two social classes and highlights the importance of such interplay. In addition, red sandstones were of the special value in Persian origins. There they meant the emperor's power (Hasan, 1994).

Furthermore, we can notice some triads in the construction of Taj Mahal (Barraud, 2006). This number is also not spontaneous. In fact, it is of huge importance in Hinduism. It has the similarity with Trinity. Moreover, this is the number of Siva, the main God in Hinduism. Therefore, the construction of Taj Mahal perfectly suits the demands of the emperor and honors the religion, at the same time.

The special attention should be paid to a riverfront garden in Taj Mahal's composition. In terms of its purpose, the riverfront garden is an essential element of the building. The emperor wanted it to a perfect resting place for his wife. The architects of that time wanted to create the possible paradise gardens (Begley, 1979). Indeed, Taj Mahal can be considered a divine composition. Additionally, from the very beginning, Taj Mahal has been focused on the demonstration of the interaction between some funeral and residential areas. From this point of view, it managed to organize both parts in harmony and balance. Moreover, the planning of Taj Mahal has broken away from previous designs. The main building had been situated in the middle of the cross-axially planned garden before. Instead, the architect has chosen the riverfront garden and raised it to the monumental scale. Thus, we can say that Taj Mahal completely satisfies its initial purpose.

Furthermore, we can notice some repeated elements in the planning process of the whole building. One type of column is typical for the entire building. It is the so-called Shahjahani's column. These columns can be found in the composition of the whole building. Their proportions are quite different. Their size and shape depends on their position and purpose. The most splendid columns are situated in the funeral are. Meanwhile some simple models can be found in the bazaar streets. Generally, columns symbolize stability and a solid background. They are typical for canonical buildings and important constructions. The usage of columns in Taj Mahal denotes the importance of the whole building and its unique purpose and tasks. Columns also represent grace and nobility.

The internal composition is also worth the special attention. The walls are drawn with plant motifs and decorations. In fact, plants have a certain meaning in Hinduism too. They witness the connection with the nature and religious traditions.

To sum up, the idea of Taj Mahal was the best variant for the emperor to honor the memory of his third wife. It combines beautiful shapes and forms with a deep sense and symbolism. The building does not contain the separate elements as all of them are combined together and harmonized into one unique structure. Taj Mahal represents the accomplishment of some architectural arts and ideas. It has not lost its uniqueness through few centuries and remained actual and beautiful even in the 21st century. Therefore, we may consider it to be a precious pearl in the world's culture.

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